TORONTO, April 7, 2021 /CNW/ – The Gairdner Foundation is joyful to roar the 2021 Canada Gairdner Award laureates, recognizing some of the most sector’s indispensable biomedical be taught and discoveries. At some stage in these worthy times, we deem it is a necessity to have a honest time scientists and innovators from around the sector and commend them for his or her tireless efforts to behavior be taught that impacts human health.
2021 Canada Gairdner World Award
The four 2021 Canada Gairdner World Award laureates are recognized for seminal discoveries or contributions to biomedical science:
Dr. Daniel J. Drucker, MD
Professor, Department of Medication, University of Toronto; Senior Scientist, Lunenfeld-Tanenbaum Evaluation Institute, Sinai Successfully being, Toronto, Ontario
Dr. Joel Francis Habener, MD
Professor of Medication, Harvard Medical College; Director, Laboratory of Molecular Endocrinology, Massachusetts Popular Sanatorium, Boston, MA
Dr. Jens Juul Holst, MD, DMSc
Professor, Department of Biomedical Sciences and community chief, Novo Nordisk Foundation Center for Popular Metabolic Evaluation, The College of Successfully being and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark
Awarded “For be taught on glucagon-fancy peptides that has resulted in important advances within the treatment of Form 2 diabetes, obesity and intestinal disorders.”
The fair and collaborative work of Daniel Drucker, Joel Habener and Jens Holst enhanced our understanding of how our gastrointestinal organs characteristic and created recent classes of gear for the treatment of metabolic disorders, namely kind 2 diabetes, obesity and brief bowel syndrome.
Drucker, Habener and Holst found hormones called glucagon-fancy peptides (GLP-1 and -2) which preserve watch over the levels of Insulin and glucagon which work together to prefer wholesome sugar levels. They elucidated their biology and physiological characteristic and played important roles within the procure and testing of therapies told by their preliminary and subsequent discoveries
These three scientists are awarded for a mixed physique of work with important impact on the self-discipline of diabetes and brief bowel syndrome however are moreover recognized for his or her particular person discoveries that underpin the translational outcomes.
Within the 1970s, Holst recorded intestinal surgical treatment sufferers experiencing insulin spikes and drops in blood sugar after meals, leading him to achieve that an incretin, due to this truth identified as GLP-1, along with insulin and glucagon used to be responsible for the glucose-triggered gastrointestinal stimulation of insulin secretion that caused the changes in blood sugar levels.
Around the same time, Habener historical pancreatic cells from anglerfish to expose that glucagon and somatostatin were encoded within the pancreatic cells as bigger, precursor hormones. At some stage in extra mammal be taught he found two recent hormones linked to glucagon which are recognized as GLP-1 and GLP-2.
Drucker, a fellow in Habener’s lab within the 1980s, outlined the processing of proglucagon and the biology of GLP-1 inch on insulin-producing cells, which resulted in the improvement of a pair of kinds of therapies for kind 2 diabetes. Along with Holst, working basically in people, they showed that as soon as food is ingested, GLP-1 is launched into the bloodstream from cells within the gut increasing insulin open and suppressing glucagon.
Work from their labs and others resulted in the improvement of novel therapeutics to preserve watch over insulin secretion in Form 2 diabetes in line with understanding the inch of GLP1 and its metabolism by the enzyme, DPP4, leading straight to the improvement of the DPP-4 inhibitors for diabetes treatment.
Drucker found the indispensable actions of GLP-2 as a gut instruct ingredient and every Drucker and Holst widely characterised its mechanisms of inch in animals and people. The first GLP-2 analogue (teduglutide) used to be well-liked for clinical use within the treatment of brief bowel syndrome in 2012.
Collectively, Drucker, Habener and Holst made important contributions to endocrinology and changed the treatment of metabolic and gastrointestinal diseases. Their work is every traditional and translational, a honest instance of bench to bedside be taught.
GLP-1 therapies have been effective within the treatment of kind 2 diabetes and more fair currently, as a treatment of obesity to decrease bustle for food. Drucker and Holst’s be taught on the characteristic of GLP-2 and its characteristic as an intestinal instruct ingredient helped invent therapies for transient bowel disease, decreasing the necessity for feeding tubes to manufacture weight loss program in kids and adults with the condition.
To this level, over 100 million people with kind 2 diabetes have been handled with a GLP-1 analogue or a DPP-4 inhibitor.
Dr. Mary-Claire King, PhD
American Most cancers Society Professor; Department of Medication and Department of Genome Sciences, University of Washington College of Medication, Seattle, WA, USA; Affiliate Member, Fred Hutchinson Most cancers Evaluation Center, Seattle, WA, USA
Awarded “For reworking most cancers genetics and oncology with the discovery of inherited susceptibility to breast most cancers due to mutation of the BRCA1 gene.”
Dr. King’s first leap forward used to be in molecular evolution and population genetics. Her be taught as a PhD pupil suggested that the variations between people and chimpanzees are due to a minute selection of mutations affecting gene guidelines and the timing of gene expression, in desire to accumulation of variations in protein-coding sequences.
King’s work evolved to focal level on proving the existence of inherited susceptibility to breast most cancers and figuring out BRCA1 as the indispensable gene responsible for it. Her community studied households all via which many ladies people developed breast or ovarian most cancers. First, in line with mathematical modeling, King hypothesized that severe inherited mutations in a single gene might per chance per chance per chance be responsible for breast most cancers in some women people. At the time, this hypothesis used to be regarded as a ways-fetched and essentially unlikely.
Then in line with this hypothesis, King proved the gene’s existence by mapping the serene-hypothetical gene to a explicit chromosomal location. She named the gene BRCA1. The premise used to be now no longer a ways-fetched and a world “race” of 4 years ensued to clone the gene.
After the gene used to be cloned, King and her colleagues developed and deployed next-period sequencing programs to name mutations in BRCA1 and its sister genes responsible for a pair of kinds of inherited most cancers. She and tons others have utilized the same manner to identification of genes with important impact on other complex diseases.
Dr. King’s discovery has transformed the prognosis, drug construction, and treatment of inherited breast and ovarian most cancers. The identification of BRCA1 — and due to this truth BRCA2 — has made it conceivable to diagnose whether a lady in an affected household is at extremely excessive risk of constructing breast and ovarian most cancers, enabling her to pursue preventative treatment.
King’s ardour for gene discovery constructed-in tools from genetics, statistics, arithmetic, epidemiology, molecular biology, genomics and clinical treatment. Her revolutionary manner to gene discovery has had an impact on many other diseases, starting from prostate most cancers to inherited listening to loss to schizophrenia. King is moreover a pioneer within the improvement of DNA sequencing for the identification of victims of human rights’ violations.
2021 John Dirks Canada Gairdner World Successfully being Award
The 2021 John Dirks Canada Gairdner World Successfully being Award laureates are recognized for excellent achievements in world health be taught:
Dr. Yi Guan, MD, MMedSci, PhD
Chair Professor in Rising Viral Ailments, Daniel C K Yu Endowed Professor in Virology, College of Public Successfully being, Li Ka Shing College of Medication, The University of Hong Kong; Director, Negate Key Laboratory for Rising Infectious Ailments, The University of Hong Kong; Director, Joint Institute of Virology (Shantou University-The University of Hong Kong), Shantou University, Shantou, China; Director, Guangdong–Hong Kong Joint Laboratory of Rising Infectious Ailments, Shantou University, Shantou, China.
Dr. Joseph Sriyal Malik Peiris, MBBS, FRCPath, DPhil (Oxon), FHKAM (Path), FRCP, FRS
Professor and Chair in Virology, The University of Hong Kong; Honorary Consultant Microbiologist, Queen Mary Sanatorium, Hong Kong; Co-Director, WHO H5 reference laboratory and SARS reference laboratory, HKU; Co-Director, WHO reference laboratories providing confirmatory testing for COVID-19, The University of Hong Kong.
Awarded “For greatly contributing to understanding the origins and alternatives for preserve watch over of newly emerging infectious disease outbreaks in Asia, particularly zoonotic influenza and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS).”
Drs. Guan and Peiris began participating at The University of Hong Kong within the aftermath of the H5N1 avian flu outbreak in Hong Kong. They initiated seminal be taught of the underlying causes of H5 virus pathogenicity, the evolution of the H5N1 virus, and developed a highly effective monitoring and surveillance program of avian and swine influenza lines. By plot of their be taught Guan and Peiris established that dwell poultry markets in southern China and Hong Kong were the source of the virus spreading to people, where it exhibited up to 60% lethality in contaminated people. This work resulted in the non permanent closure of the dwell poultry markets and cessation of animal to human transmission. Their subsequent work established recent protocols for periodic dwell poultry market closures, emptying markets of poultry overnight to decrease virus amplification inner these markets and the true use of poultry vaccines to offer protection to every poultry and people in Hong Kong from H5N1 infections. They’ve made important contributions in the direction of understanding the emergence, transmission, epidemiology and pathogenesis of highly pathogenic avian influenzas including H5N1, H9N2, H6N1, H7N9, H5Nx and others and have equipped evidence-basically basically based alternatives for preserve watch over of avian influenza viruses in Asia.
In 2003, following the emergence of novel coronavirus, SARS (severe acute respiratory syndrome) in China, Peiris led the crew that first identified the virus responsible for the syndrome, the SARS-CoV-1 coronavirus, elucidating its pathogenesis, transmission, and hastily developed a diagnostic check which used to be then shared internationally. Meanwhile, Guan’s crew identified the human infectious source and zoonotic interface of SARS within the wild animal markets in Guangdong, China in 2003 and identified the human infectious source of MERS (Center East Respiratory Syndrome) in Saudi Arabia in 2015. Guan’s be taught accelerated advocacy of the closure of untamed sport animal markets, avoiding a likely recurrence of SARS in 2004.
Guan and Peiris’ investigations into the emergence and evolution of animal influenza H5 lines (and other H and N subtypes) and their characteristic in figuring out the SARS coronavirus, mode of transmission, risk elements, virus infectivity and length of infectivity, and figuring out the distinctive animal source were important within the a success response to the outbreak.
Within the case of SARS, which used to be causing up to 10% lethality in contaminated people, their begin sharing of data with the World Successfully being Group (WHO) and broader world community straight resulted within the brief preserve watch over of the disease. The institution of the characteristic of untamed sport animal markets within the transmission of the virus used to be pivotal within the choice by native Guangdong authorities to end such markets to forestall future outbreaks of this or one other emerging zoonosis. The isolation and characterization of the causative agent of SARS as a novel coronavirus and hastily construction of a diagnostic check of the virus in people straight influenced public health protection to effectively video display and preserve watch over the spread of the disease.
Guan and Peiris’ complete programs for surveillance, monitoring, figuring out the human infectious source, investigation, prognosis and preserve watch over of emerging infectious disease outbreaks proceed to manufacture important steering and insight for worldwide locations for the length of Asia and the sector, including the 2009 swine flu pandemic, Center East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS), and the COVID-19 pandemic.
2021 Canada Gairdner Wightman Award
The 2021 Canada Gairdner Wightman Award laureate is a Canadian scientist recognized for excellent leadership in treatment and clinical science for the length of their occupation:
Dr. Elizabeth Eisenhauer, OC, MD, FRCPC, FRSC
Professor Emerita, Departments of Oncology and Medication, Adjunct Professor of Oncology, Queen’s University; Innovation Lead, Kingston Successfully being Sciences Centre
Awarded “For investigation of most up-to-date most cancers treatment and delivery approaches, leading trade in most cancers clinical trials and setting up recent standards of most cancers treatment which have impacted sufferers around the sector.”
Dr. Eisenhauer’s be taught has transformed the fields of most cancers clinical trials and most cancers drug delivery. Her traditional contributions to the clinical evaluation of most up-to-date anti-most cancers agents, in addition to to most cancers be taught plan and clinical trials construction, have been important within the improvement of most up-to-date therapies for ovarian most cancers, malignant melanoma and brain tumours. She is credited with constructing recent methodologies for the delivery of Taxol, one in every of the ideal most cancers treatment within the sector, which maintained the drug’s efficacy and reduced toxic side outcomes to most cancers sufferers. This shorter, safer manner to insist the drug has turn out to be the arena customary, reworking the journey and outcomes of millions of sufferers worldwide.
Dr. Eisenhauer’s unheard of contributions lengthen to impactful national and world leadership roles including the founding in 1982 and subsequent route of the Investigational New Drug Program (IND) of the National Most cancers Institute of Canada Clinical Trials Personnel (NCIC-CTG), now the Canadian Most cancers Trials Personnel. Dr. Eisenhauer moreover co-led the Methodology for the Vogue of Innovative Most cancers Therapies World Activity Power where she developed ideas for the procure and endpoints for trials of novel focused most cancers agents. As smartly she led the appearance of the indispensable collaborative most cancers be taught plan for Canada in her characteristic as co-Chair of the Canadian Most cancers Evaluation Alliance, convened the indispensable Summit to manufacture a Tobacco Endgame for Canada and used to be inaugural Expert Lead for Evaluation within the Canadian Partnership in opposition to Most cancers.
Dr. Eisenhauer’s commitment to the advancement of most cancers treatment, supportive care and prevention is unparalleled. Her intensive be taught contributions and leadership inner the self-discipline of most cancers care in Canada have influenced and improved the behavior of clinical trials internationally. Her work has expanded the understanding of therapeutic interventions and has resulted in recent standards of most cancers treatment for sufferers in Canada and around the sector.
In regards to the Gairdner Foundation:
The Gairdner Foundation used to be established in 1957 by Toronto stockbroker, James Gairdner to award annual prizes to scientists whose discoveries have had important impact on scientific development and on human health. Since 1959 when the indispensable awards were granted, 394 scientists have got a Canada Gairdner Award and 92 to this level have long gone on to procure the Nobel Prize. The Canada Gairdner Awards promote a stronger custom of be taught and innovation at some level of the country via our Outreach Purposes including lectures and be taught symposia. The functions bring most up-to-date and previous laureates to no longer decrease than 15 universities at some level of Canada to communicate with college, trainees and highschool college students to encourage the following period of researchers. Annual be taught symposia and public lectures are organized at some level of Canada to manufacture Canadians procure entry to to leading science via Gairdner’s convening energy.
SOURCE Gairdner Foundation